GOAL | 06 | Clean Water and Sanitation

Sustainable Development Goal 6 seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Universal access implies going beyond monitoring access at the household level and addressing access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in institutional settings, including schools and health-care facilities.

  • In 2015, some 71 per cent of Indonesia’s population used an improved drinking water source in their households.
  • In educational settings, 86 per cent of primary and secondary schools reported having an improved water source.
  •  Six in 10 people used basic sanitation facilities at home, but 12 per cent did not have any facilities at all and continued to practise open defecation in 2015.
  • Efforts are ongoing to bring national data collection instruments in line
    with the requirements of the SDG indicators on WASH and to improve the availability of information on the accessibility and quality of services provided.

Clean Water

What this goal is about

Sustainable Development Goal 6 seeks to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Its targets address issues related to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), as well as other aspects of the water cycle related to wastewater, water-use efficiency, integrated resources management and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. Achieving universal and equitable access to safely managed water, sanitation and hygiene implies addressing access to WASH at the household level and in institutional settings such as schools and health facilities.

The 2030 Agenda recognizes the centrality of water resources to sustainable development and the important role that WASH plays in enabling progress in other areas, including nutrition, health, education and poverty reduction. For children, good quality water, sanitation and hygiene provide a critical foundation for survival and development. Diarrheal disease, for example, remains a leading cause of child mortality and morbidity, and mostly results from poor WASH practices. Inadequate sanitation and hygiene are linked to higher rates of childhood stunting and undernutrition. There is also growing evidence that a lack of appropriate water and sanitation facilities can act as a barrier to children’s attendance and performance in schools, especially for girls and children with disabilities.

The Government of Indonesia has a strong commitment to achieving universal access to WASH, reflected in the National Policy for Development of Community-based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation; the rural Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income Communities Programme (PAMSIMAS); the urban Accelerated Sanitation Development Programme (PPSP); and the National Programme on Community-Based Total Sanitation (STBM). The STBM programme is focused on five pillars: elimination of open defecation; hand washing with soap; household water treatment; solid waste management; and liquid waste management. In 2015, about a third of all wards and villages across the country (33 per cent) had a functioning STBM committee in their community. Recently, the Ministry of Education and Culture has started integrating the SDGs on WASH in schools into the national education management information system which will allow reporting of the WASH indicators within the safe environment focus of SDG 4.a.

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Clean Water and Sanitation

Key statistics & figures

Note: The national proxy indicators on WASH are defined differently from the global SDG indicators due to data limitations.

Many schools are unable to provide safe drinking water to their pupils
Percentage of schools with access to an improved source of drinking water, by province, 2016/2017

Source: School statistics from the Ministry of Education and Culture 2016/2017

The richest 20 per cent of people are twice as likely to have basic sanitation at home as the poorest 20 per cent
Share of the population having access to improved sanitation facility by wealth quintile, 2015

Source: SUSENAS 2015

Improved access to sanitation facilities is associated with reduced stunting among children under 5 years of age
Correlation between use of improved sanitation facilities and child stunting, by province

Notes: R-square can take on any value between 0 and 1, with a value closer to 1 indicating that a greater proportion of variance is accounted for by the model. An R-square value of 0.53 108 means that the fit (linear trend line) explains 53 per cent of the total variation in the data about the average.

Source: Data on sanitation from SUSENAS 2015; data on stunting from RISKESDAS 2013

Higher education level of household head is linked to better hygiene behaviour
Percentage of the population practicing open defecation and not washing their hands properly, by education of the household head, 2013/2015

Source: SUSENAS 2015: Open Defecation; RISKESDAS 2013: Handwashing

The share of the population drinking water from an improved source at home ranges from 42 per cent in Bengkulu to 93 per cent in DKI Jakarta
Percentage of the population using an improved source of drinking water, by province, 2015

Source: SUSENAS 2015

Open defecation remains a significant challenge
Percentage of the population practicing open defecation and percentage using basic sanitation, by province, 2015

Source: SUSENAS 2015