GOAL | 13 | Climate Action

Sustainable Development Goal 13 aims to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts, and to build resilience in responding to climate-related hazards and natural disasters. Climate action and disaster risk reduction are cross-cutting issues that form an integral part of social and economic development and the achievement of all the SDGs.

  • Indonesia is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. Between 2005 and 2015, 986 out of every 100,000 people were affected by disasters annually on average.
  • 306 educational facilities were damaged by natural disasters in 2015.
  • The Government has committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 29 per cent by 2030 without foreign help, and 41 per cent with foreign help.

No Poverty

What this goal is about

Sustainable Development Goal 13 calls for urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts and to build resilience in responding to climate-related hazards and natural disasters. Climate change presents a major threat to development, and its harmful impacts disproportionately burden the poorest and most vulnerable. Over the last decade, Indonesia was consistently ranked as one of the top five countries most frequently hit by natural disasters, together with China, the United States of America, India and the Philippines.

Increased surface temperatures have already changed the pattern and intensity of rainfall, causing higher risks of floods during the rainfall season and prolonged droughts during the dry season. As an archipelago nation, Indonesia is also highly vulnerable to slow onset events such as rising sea levels because much of the economic infrastructure and up to 60 per cent of the population is located in coastal zones.

Climate change and disaster risk are inherently cross-cutting issues with important linkages to other SDGs related to poverty, gender, health, water and sanitation, among others. Though no one is immune to the effects of climate change, children are particularly vulnerable. The risks confronting children are diverse, ranging from direct physical impacts from extreme events and disasters to impacts on their ability to attend school, psychological stress and nutritional challenges. Vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue are expected to spread due to rising temperatures and increased rainfall. Good risk reduction strategies can help to prevent natural hazards (for example, earthquakes, droughts, floods and storms) from becoming harmful disasters that threaten children’s survival, development and protection.

The Government of Indonesia is a signatory to the 2015 Paris Agreement to limit global temperature rise to well below two degrees Celsius and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. It has put in place a National Action Plan for Climate Change and the National Medium-Term Development Plan 2015–2019 outlines the need to further mainstream disaster management into development planning. Indonesia spent 0.9 per cent of the national budget and 0.38 per cent of sub-national budgets on risk reduction and risk prevention in 2015. The National Disaster Management Plan for 2015–2019 and Disaster Management Policy and Strategy 2015–2019 articulate Indonesia’s growing commitment to finance disaster risk reduction mainstreaming.

MORE

Climate Action

Key statistics & figures

Note: In the global SDG indicator framework, the indicators on disaster-affected people are repeated under Goal 1 and Goal 11. To avoid duplication, this report only includes them under Goal 13.

Floods and landslides are the most common hazards impacting on people and communities
Percentage distribution of people affected, by hazard type, 2005–2015

Source: DIBI

Indonesia’s greenhouse gas emissions come mainly from deforestation and peat fires
Percentage distribution of Indonesia’s total greenhouse gases, by source, 2010

Source: Nationally Defined Contribution to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2016

Children and young people understand climate change is a threat to Indonesia
Percentage of children and young people responding to the question: “Is climate change a threat in Indonesia?”, by age group, 2016/2017

Source: U-Report UNICEF 2017

People’s exposure to hazards and natural disasters varies significantly across the country
Number of people affected by disasters per 100,000 people, by province, annual average for the period 2005–2015

Source: DIBI and Census 2010

Earthquakes and tsunamis are the deadliest hazards in Indonesia
Number of deaths due to disasters, by disaster, 2005–2015

Source: DIBI

Floods and landslides are the most common hazards impacting on people and communities
Percentage distribution of people affected, by hazard type, 2005–2015

Source: DIBI

Children and young people realize they are just as or even more affected by climate change than adults
Percentage of children and young people responding to the question: “Who is the most affected by climate change?”, by age group, 2016/2017

Source: U-Report UNICEF 2017