GOAL | 05 | Gender Equality

Sustainable Development Goal 5 seeks to empower women and girls to reach their full potential, which requires eliminating all forms of discrimination and violence against them, including harmful practices.

  • According to the 2016 Women’s Health and Life Experiences Survey (SPHPN), 28 per cent of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15–64 years have experienced physical, sexual and/or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner. One in 10 experienced intimate-partner violence in the 12 months preceding the survey.
  • One in four (24 per cent) women and girls aged 15–64 years has experienced some form of physical and/or sexual violence by someone other than an intimate partner in their lifetime, with 6 per cent of them experiencing this in the past 12 months.
  • Nationwide, 12 per cent of women aged 20–24 years were married or in union before the age of 18 in 2015. Child marriage rates vary significantly across provinces.

Gender Equality

What this goal is about

Sustainable Development Goal 5 seeks to end all forms of discrimination against women and girls. Gender equality is not only a human right; it is also a key driver of sustainable development and economic growth. Globally, there have been important advances in gender equality and women’s empowerment, such as increases in girls’ education, improved access to sexual and reproductive health services, and declines in certain harmful practices, including child marriage.

In Indonesia, the past few decades have seen improvements for women and girls in health, education, labour force participation and political participation. The Presidential Instruction No. 9/2000 on Gender Mainstreaming reflects the Government’s long-standing commitment to achieving gender equality. However, women and girls globally and in Indonesia continue to lag behind their male peers in a number of areas. Furthermore, women and girls are at heightened risk of gender-based violence, while bearing the brunt of practices that are grounded in regressive and harmful gender norms. This goal is therefore dedicated to addressing the causes and manifestations of gender inequality, and to reducing the gender gap to ensure that women and girls can fully benefit from – and contribute to – Indonesia’s sustainable development.

Measurement of progress against this goal will focus on priority indicators that track gender-based violence against women and girls. This includes intimate partner violence; sexual violence by someone other than an intimate partner; and child marriage. Gender-based violence in all forms imposes a heavy personal, social and economic cost, undermining sustainable development. Furthermore, the legacy of gender-based violence extends into future generations: children who grow up in homes and communities where they witness or experience gender-based violence are more likely to accept these behaviours and adopt them later in life, perpetuating a vicious ‘cycle’ of violence and gender inequality. Indonesia has committed to protecting women and children from violence and abuse under the National Medium-Term Development Plan 2015–2019. Gender inequality is a root cause of several harmful practices, including child marriage. Child marriage negatively impacts on girls’ health, nutrition, education and protection. Economic costs associated with these impacts – in terms of lost productivity and earnings – are very high as shown from local and international studies.

It bears noting that gender equality is a cross-cutting issue and is also addressed under other goals.

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Gender Equality

Key statistics & figures

*SDG indicator 5.2.2 measures the prevalence of non-partner sexual violence in the previous 12 months. Data values for this specific SDG indicator based on the 2016 SPHPN have not yet been released. The indicator reported in the table refers to non partner sexual and/or physical violence in the 12 months prior to the survey.

One in four women and girls aged 15–64 years has experienced physical and/or sexual violence by someone other than an intimate partner at least once in their life
Proportion of women and girls aged 15–64 years old ever subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by someone other than an intimate partner, 2016

Source: SPHPN 2016

Child marriage rates vary significantly across provinces
Proportion of all women aged 20–24 who were married or in a union before age 18, by province, 2015

Source: SUSENAS 2015

One in 10 ever-married women and girls aged 15–64 years has experienced physical, sexual and/or psychological violence by a partner in the past 12 months
Proportion of ever-married women and girls aged 15–64 years subjected to violence by a current or former intimate partner, by timeline and form of violence, 2016

Source: SPHPN 2016

Girls in the lowest wealth quintiles and in rural areas are more likely to marry before age 18
Proportion of women aged 20–24 who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18, 2015

Source: SUSENAS 2015

Girls who marry before age 18 are six times less likely to complete senior secondary school
Percentage distribution of women aged 20–24 years according to highest level of education achieved, by child marriage status, 2015

Source: SUSENAS 2015