GOAL | 16 | Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
Sustainable Development Goal 16 is dedicated to the promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, the provision of access to justice for all, and building effective, accountable institutions at all levels. This includes ensuring that all children are protected from all forms of violence.
- There is currently no nationally representative data on the prevalence of different forms of violence against children as measured by the official SDG indicator.
- The reported number of victims of trafficking in Indonesia is estimated at 2.8 per 100,000 of the population. Some 16 per cent of reported cases of trafficking involve children.
- Nationwide, 22 per cent of all children who were in detention were unsentenced. Boys made up 97 per cent of the child detention population in 2014.
- Indonesia has made significant progress in ensuring all children have their births registered: 73 per cent of children under 5 years of age had a birth certificate in 2015.
What this goal is about
Sustainable Development Goal 16 is dedicated to the promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, the provision of access to justice for all, and building effective, accountable institutions at all levels. Peace and security, underpinned by strong rule of law and access to justice, is fundamental for sustainable development. Crime and violence threatens the lives of men and women, and boys and girls, while also undermining inclusive social and economic development and growth. For example, homicide rates in developing countries are twice that of developed countries, and armed conflict continues to displace people around the world, leaving large populations in need of humanitarian assistance.
All children have the right to be protected from violence, abuse and exploitation. Various forms of violence against children, including discipline that involves physical punishment and/or psychological aggression, are pervasive. Not only can violence expose children to immediate and long-term physical harm, it can have long-lasting negative psychological, social and economic impacts. Globally, there is a lack of data on violence against children, with countries facing a range of challenges in maintaining accurate and up-to-date prevalence estimates. A strong and child-friendly justice system is critical to ensuring that children in contact with the law have access to justice and are protected from harm, whether they are victims or witnesses, or are suspected or accused of committing a crime. Without a quality child justice system, children can be denied protection and justice, and can be re-victimized and harmed through the justice process itself.
Birth registration is critical in providing children with a legal identity, and helps to safeguard many of their civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.
Indonesia has invested heavily in legal reforms to strengthen children’s protection from violence and has developed a National Strategy on the Elimination of Violence Against Children (2016–2020) with an accompanying Action Plan. Indonesia’s commitment to achieving this goal is also reflected in its decision to become a Pathfinder Country for the Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children. Through the Partnership, Indonesia can provide global leadership in achieving targets to end violence against children, exchanging lessons and innovations in support of this goal. The Juvenile Criminal Justice System Law which came into effect in 2012 introduced a range of international standards into the juvenile justice system and increased the age of criminal responsibility from 8 to 12 years.
Key statistics & figures
Source: Calculations based on reported cases of trafﬁcking compiled by the Task Force of Prevention and Law Enforcement regarding Trafﬁcking (cited in Pencegahan dan Penanganan Tindak Pidana Perdagangan Orang Laporan , 2015).
Women and girls are over four times more likely to be trafﬁcked than men and boys
Number of victims of trafﬁcking per 100,000 people, by sex and age
The proportion of children in detention who are unsentenced varies signiﬁcantly by province
Unsentenced children as a proportion of the overall prison population, by province, 2014
Source: Administrative data from the Ministry of Law and Human Rights, available at https://data.go.id/. Figures for 2015 have not yet been released.
There are signiﬁcant regional disparities in birth registration
Percentage of children under 5 years of age with a birth certiﬁcate, by province, 2015
Source: SUSENAS 2015
High school students, particularly boys, often face physical attacks and harassment
Source: Global School Health Survey 2015
One in ﬁve children in detention are unsentenced, with girls more likely to be detained without a conviction than boys
Unsentenced child detainees as proportion of overall child prison population, by sex, 2014
Most children under 5 years have their birth registered, but those in low income homes and in rural areas are more likely to miss out
Percentage of children under 5 years of age with a birth certiﬁcate, by selected characteristics, 2015
Source: SUSENAS 2015
For the poorest households, affordability is the most commonly reported barrier to children having a birth certiﬁcate
Percentage distribution of unregistered children under 5 according to reasons given for not having a birth certiﬁcate, by household consumption quintile, 2015
Source: SUSENAS 2015