GOAL | 02 | Zero Hunger

Sustainable Development Goal 2 seeks sustainable solutions to end hunger and all forms of malnutrition by 2030 and to achieve food security.

  • Over 37 per cent of children under 5 years of age were stunted in 2013 – roughly 8.4 million children nationwide. The prevalence of stunting is high even among children from the wealthiest households.
  • The double burden of malnutrition is an increasing concern. For Indonesia, this is an active challenge: in 2013, 12 per cent of children under age 5 were affected by wasting (low weight-for-height), and the same number of children were overweight.
  • Anaemia – one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world – affected 23 per cent of women older than 15 years of age and 37 per cent of pregnant women.
  • While modest progress has been made, less than half of infants (45 per cent) benefited from exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life in 2015.

Zero Hunger

What this goal is about

Sustainable Development Goal 2 seeks sustainable solutions to end hunger and all forms of malnutrition by 2030 and to achieve food security. Hunger and malnutrition are a leading cause of death and disease around the world, with high human and economic costs.

Sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices are critical for ensuring food and nutrition security for all. Disasters and other shocks and crises are a significant driver of hunger around the world. Maternal and child malnutrition hinders the survival and development of children.

Malnutrition is a multi-sectoral issue that goes beyond food security: for example, globally there are clearly established linkages between child stunting and poor sanitation, a finding which has also been demonstrated in Indonesia.
In tackling child undernutrition, there has been a global shift from measuring and tracking the prevalence of underweight children towards focusing on child stunting.There is now a better understanding of the importance of nutrition during the critical 1,000-day period, which covers pregnancy and the first two years of the child’s life. Stunting in particular reflects chronic undernutrition during this period. Stunting can cause lasting damage, including poor health; increased risk of non-communicable diseases; poor cognition and education performance in childhood; and low adult wages and lost productivity.

Evidence now shows clearly the importance of investing in the nutrition of adolescent girls, including by supporting girls to delay childbearing.
The double burden of undernutrition alongside childhood obesity is an increasing concern. For Indonesia, this is an active challenge: 12 per cent of children under the age of 5 were affected by wasting (low weight-for-height) in 2013, and the same number of children were overweight.

There is a strong economic case to be made for addressing malnutrition in all its forms: annually, Indonesia loses over US$4.3 billion in gross domestic product to vitamin and mineral deficiencies, while the returns on investments in nutrition interventions are as high as eight to 30 times the costs.3
Indonesia ranks 10th out of 44 countries on the Hunger and Nutrition Commitment Index, an acknowledgement of the country’s strong commitment to achieving this SDG.

The decision to join the global Scaling Up Nutrition movement, and the increased budgetary allocations for both nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions, are further examples of the Government’s commitment towards ending hunger and malnutrition.

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Zero Hunger

Key statistics & figures

Source: The national figure on anaemia refers to non-pregnant women aged 15+ years

Disparities exist but rates of malnutrition are high even among children living in the wealthiest and most educated households
Percentage of children under age 5 who are malnourished, by selected characteristics, 2013

Source: RISKESDAS 2013

Six provinces had levels of childhood wasting associated with a critical public health emergency in 2013
Percentage of children under age 5 who are wasted, by province, 2013

Note: Wasting is defined as the percent age of children under 5 whose weight for height is below minus two standard deviations from the median of the WHO child growth standards.

Source: RISKESDAS 2013

Less than half of infants benefit from exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life
Percentage of infants 0–5 months of age who are fed exclusively with breast-milk, by selected characteristics, 2015

Source: SUSENAS 2015

Six out of 10 children age 0–23 months in Indonesia are appropriately fed
Infant feeding practices, by age (in months), 2012

Source: IDHS 2012

The prevalence of childhood stunting is high or very high in nearly all provinces of Indonesia
Percentage of children under age 5 with stunted growth, by province, 2013

Note: Stunting is defined as the percentage of children under 5 whose height for age is below minus two standard deviations from the median of the WHO child growth standards.

Source: RISKESDAS 2013

The first two years of life are critical for addressing childhood stunting
Percentage of children under age 5 who are malnourished, by age (in months), 2013

Source: RISKESDAS 2013

Disparities in childhood overweight
Percentage of children under age 5 who are overweight, by province, 2013

Note: Overweight is defined as the percentage of children under 5 whose weight for height is above two standard deviations from the median of the WHO child growth standards

Source: RISKESDAS 2013

Only nine provinces have reached the World Health Assembly global target of achieving at least 50 per cent exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months
Percentage of infants 0–5 months of age who are fed exclusively with breast-milk, by province, 2015

Source: SUSENAS 2015